The Influence of Capillary Flow on the Fate of Evaporating Wetted Imprint of the Sessile Droplet in Porous Medium
Physics of Fluids
The fate of a wetting liquid sessile droplet imbibed by a porous medium is formulated as a multiphase flow problem and a numerical solution is developed using the capillary network model with a microforce balance at the liquid∣gasliquid∣gas interface. The liquid phase capillary flow and evaporation are solved simultaneously. An exclusive evidence for a multiphase flow is already found in the capillary flow, as a liquid wets a much larger volume of porous medium compared to the wetted volume, calculated by assuming that the medium imbibes the liquid in the single-phase flow. The physics of the multiphase capillary flow includes the formation of local gas clusters and liquid ganglia. The clusters and ganglia distribution is further altered by evaporation. The evaporation tends to shrink the ganglia sizes and open the gas clusters, both due to the liquid mass loss from the porous medium. Still, the capillarity tends to disperse the liquid back into the regions from where the liquid previously evaporated. These changes in the liquid saturation produce the changes in vapor concentration within the porous medium and changes in the mass fluxes. The imprint shape varies, where, for more spherical imprints, the evaporation is enhanced due to the capillary flow. The opposite is true for the elongated imprints for which the capillarity hinders the evaporation rate. Comparing the spherical and elongated imprints, the liquid dispersion differs and the capillary flow the into protrusion direction is pronounced for the elongated imprints. The changes in the liquid dispersion and imprint shape influence the vapor concentration within the porous medium, vapor phase mass fluxes, and liquid persistence time. Finally, the previous behavior is observed for hazardous materials and warfare agents, where predicting the fate of such kind of liquids and their vapors become especially important due to their harmful effects.
© 2010 American Institute of Physics.
Markicevic, B. and Navaz, Homayun K., "The Influence of Capillary Flow on the Fate of Evaporating Wetted Imprint of the Sessile Droplet in Porous Medium" (2010). Mechanical Engineering Publications. 173.