Structural Basis for Thrombin Activation of a Protease-Activated Receptor
Cell Chemical Biology
Protease-activated G protein-coupled receptors (PAR1–4) are tethered-ligand receptors that are activated by proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain (exodomain) of the receptor. PAR1, the prototypic member of the PAR family, is the high-affinity thrombin receptor of platelets and vascular endothelium and plays a critical role in blood coagulation, thrombosis, and inflammation. Here, we describe the solution structure of the thrombin-cleaved exodomain of PAR1. The side chains of a hydrophobic hirudin-like (Hir) sequence and adjacent anionic motif project into solution. Docking of the exodomain Hir sequence to exosite I of thrombin reveals that the tethered ligand in the cleaved exodomain bends away from thrombin, leaving its active site available to another large macromolecular substrate. The N-terminal ligand is longer than anticipated and forms an intramolecular complex with a region located in the C terminus of the exodomain. Mutational analysis confirmed that this C-terminal region is a ligand binding site for both intra- and intermolecular ligands. A lipidated-ligand binding site peptide was found to be an effective inhibitor of thrombin-induced platelet aggregation.
© 2003 Cell Press
Seeley, Stacy; Covic, Lidija; Jacques, Suzanne L.; Sudmeier, James; Baleja, James D.; and Kuliopulos, Athan, "Structural Basis for Thrombin Activation of a Protease-Activated Receptor" (2003). Chemistry & Biochemistry Publications. 97.