Chemometrics in Monitoring Spatial and Temporal Variations in Drinking Water Quality
This case study reports multivariate techniques applied for the evaluation of temporal/spatial variations and interpretation of monitoring data obtained by the determination of chloro/bromo disinfection by-products in drinking water at 12 locations in the Gdańsk area (Poland), over the period 1993-2000. The complex data matrix (1756 observations) was treated with various multivariate techniques. Cluster analysis (CA) was successful, yielding two different groups of similarity reflecting different types of drinking water supplied (surface and groundwater). The locations supplied in general with groundwater could be further classified into two subgroups, depending on whether the groundwater was mixed with surface water or not. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to classify and thus confirm the groups found by means of cluster analysis and proved the existence of statistically significant differences between the concentration levels of CHCl3, CHBrCl2+C2HCl3, CHBr2Cl, and CH2Cl2 in the samples collected. Of all the variables evaluated, only three were characterized by statistically significant correlations (CHCl3, CHBrCl2+C2HCl3, CHBr2Cl). The analysis of correlation coefficients revealed that chloroform formed as the main chlorinated disinfection by-product and, furthermore, the natural presence of bromide in water (both ground and surface) results in the formation of brominated disinfection by-products (DBPs). Temporal variations of volatile organic chlorinated compounds (VOCls) were also evaluated by multidimensional ANOVA. Observation of temporal changes in the concentration of VOCls at the location supplied with both surface and groundwater reveals a steady improvement in drinking water quality. In general, the study shows the importance of drinking water monitoring in connection with simple but powerful statistical tools to better understand spatial and temporal variations in water quality.
© 2006 Elsevier Ltd.
Astel, Aleksander; Biziuk, Marek; Przyjazny, Andrzej; and Namiesnik, Jacek, "Chemometrics in Monitoring Spatial and Temporal Variations in Drinking Water Quality" (2006). Chemistry & Biochemistry Publications. 34.