Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Publication Date


Publication Title

Procedia Manufacturing

Conference Name

49th SME North American Manufacturing Research Conference


Using localized electrochemical deposition (LECD) as a mask-less direct writing methodology, metal shapes are printed. The electrochemical double-layer capacitance at ultra-high frequencies is hypothesized to cause a localized deposition and the effect of pulse frequency on the current density is modeled to predict the deposition resolution and rate of deposition. Experimental results confirm that the deposition resolution and efficiency of the LECD process increase with the increase of pulse frequency. Deposition resolution 80% smaller than the tool diameter is feasible in the LECD of nickel used with a ø 250 μm tool at 1 MHz pulsed power.


Published by Elsevier B.V.

This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.

Rights Statement

© 2021 The Authors.