A Mathematical Model to Predict the Porosity of Locally Electrodeposited Nickel under Pulsed Voltage Conditions

Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Publication Date


Publication Title

Procedia Manufacturing

Conference Name

48th SME North American Manufacturing Research Conference, NAMRC 48


Metal parts manufactured with engineered porosity offer advantages over traditional parts as they have excellent specific mechanical properties at a lower weight. This is especially of interest in the aerospace and automobile industries. Additive manufacturing allows for creating parts with computer aided design (CAD) modeled lattice structures that offer lightweight parts. However, there is a need for porous structures at the micron scale (<50 µm) which cannot be achieved in a controlled manner using traditional powder-bed based metal additive manufacturing processes. Electrochemical Additive Manufacturing (ECAM) is a novel non-thermal metal additive manufacturing process capable of producing metal 3D parts with engineered porosity at the micron scale. There is a lack of understanding of the cause of porosity and controlling the porosity generated in the parts created using this process. In this paper, the effects of the electrical parameters of deposition, such as the pulse duty cycle and pulse frequency during electrodeposition, on the porosity of the manufactured parts were mathematically modeled. The model predicts that higher frequency electrodeposition leads to more porous structures. The model developed in this study can be used to predict the process parameters needed to deposit nickel microstructures with desired levels of porosity between 20 and 55 %. These model predictions were also validated by experiments. Two mechanisms for the cause of porosity in the deposits were identified. The diffusion-limited deposition phenomenon causing a lack of availability of cations results in larger sized pores and hollow structures to form on the part. The crystal growth and the nucleation process cause micron-scale pores.


ISSN: 2351-9789

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Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

© 2020 The Authors

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