Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Journal of Healthcare Engineering


Orthopaedic simulators are popular in innovative surgical training programs, where trainees gain procedural experience in a safe and controlled environment. Recent studies suggest that an ideal simulator should combine haptic, visual, and audio technology to create an immersive training environment. This article explores the potentialities of mixed-reality using the HoloLens to develop a hybrid training system for orthopaedic open surgery. Hip arthroplasty, one of the most common orthopaedic procedures, was chosen as a benchmark to evaluate the proposed system. Patient-specific anatomical 3D models were extracted from a patient computed tomography to implement the virtual content and to fabricate the physical components of the simulator. Rapid prototyping was used to create synthetic bones. The Vuforia SDK was utilized to register virtual and physical contents. The Unity3D game engine was employed to develop the software allowing interactions with the virtual content using head movements, gestures, and voice commands. Quantitative tests were performed to estimate the accuracy of the system by evaluating the perceived position of augmented reality targets. Mean and maximum errors matched the requirements of the target application. Qualitative tests were carried out to evaluate workload and usability of the HoloLens for our orthopaedic simulator, considering visual and audio perception and interaction and ergonomics issues. The perceived overall workload was low, and the self-assessed performance was considered satisfactory. Visual and audio perception and gesture and voice interactions obtained a positive feedback. Postural discomfort and visual fatigue obtained a nonnegative evaluation for a simulation session of 40 minutes. These results encourage using mixed-reality to implement a hybrid simulator for orthopaedic open surgery. An optimal design of the simulation tasks and equipment setup is required to minimize the user discomfort. Future works will include Face Validity, Content Validity, and Construct Validity to complete the assessment of the hip arthroplasty simulator.






ISSN: 2040-2295, ESSN: 2040-2309


Article ID: 5435097


© 2019 by the authors