Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography with Pattern Modulation
Journal of Chromatography A
Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) modulators normally transfer primary column effluent to the head of the secondary column as a series of sharp pulses. Such pulses are produced with time-varying temperature gradients in thermal modulation or with time-varying flow patterns in flow modulation. Thermal modulators produce narrow peaks at optimal flow rates, but require large amounts of consumables or a highly engineered heating/cooling system. Flow modulators involve simpler hardware and no additional consumables. However, flow modulators require a large increase in secondary column flow or transfer only a small portion of the primary effluent to the secondary column. This study examines a new method of producing GC×GC separations with a flow modulator. Instead of injecting narrow pulses, the modulator transfers primary effluent to the secondary column in the form of an intricate injection pattern. The detector signal is deconvoluted and converted to a two-dimensional chromatogram. The high duty cycle of the technique (>50%) leads to deconvoluted peaks with twenty times greater intensity than those produced by conventional modulation with a Deans switch modulator. Pattern modulation can be produced without requiring elevated carrier flows. This study evaluates the efficacy of pattern modulation GC×GC by analyzing a standard mixture of 43 oxygenated organic compounds and an E85 fuel sample.
Seeley, John V. and Seeley, Stacy K., "Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography with Pattern Modulation" (2015). Chemistry & Biochemistry Publications. 79.